Question and Answer Essay

Mediation and Moderation (what are they? How is mediation different from moderation? How were they tested in the paper?)
Mediation and moderation are evaluative tools used in critiquing a theory. Variable that affect the strength between other testing points are defined as moderators. Contrarily, mediators help in strengthening this link. These items were tested using SPSS software with the authors applying different responses to identify patterns.

Find the questions used in the survey. Explain the definitions of each one of the variables used in the study.

The authors mentioned that the questionnaire was confidential. As such, they did not produce the transcripts or the questionnaire. Regardless of this privacy, one can infer what some of the questions were by analyzing the theoretical framework guiding the study. Carter et al. explain that they used the LMX 12 item framework for this study. In it, they focused on issues such as whether the staff feel protected from their bosses. Additionally, the study has serveral dependent variables such as task performance, OCB, and relationship quality.

What is HLM? Why was it used in this paper?
Carter et al. affirm that HLM is a hierarchical linear modeling. This approach is a statistical evaluation of a dataset using an ordinary least square regression based analysis. The authors use that model to create multi-tier evaluations of the various datasets they have. In this study, they had levels 1 and 2 each with unique variables. This arrangement allows them to effectively identify the relationships between the variables at these two levels.

What is p value? What is the meaning of significance?
P-value is a measure of statistical significance. It is used to identify the bounds within which a hypothesis holds true.

What is Social Exchange Theory? How is it used in this study?
Social exchange theory is a behavioral principle that suggests that staff members will engage in behaviors that reciprocate benefits provided by their executives. Accordingly, Carter et al. hold that an organization should develop a workplace where all staff members feel valued and their efforts are equally appreciated. The researchers use this theory as a key framework that justifies their hypothesis. Hypothesis 1 (a-b) of the study is a supposition that relationship quality will mediate the association of employee task performance with transformational leadership. Hence, the reviewers use the philosophical underpinnings of this theory to explain why their perceived gain is necessary for their firm’s progress.

What is Transformational Leadership Theory? and How is it used in this study?
The paper is an evaluation of how change oriented leaders relate with their employees and influence their ability to perform. The definition and understanding of who such executives are is contained in the transformational leadership theory. Carter et al. introduce transformational leadership at the start of the article as they link it to change management. However, the theory is used to describe the extents such leaders are willing to take to ensure that their firms progress. For instance, Carter et al. assert that the transformational leadership theory recognizes the value of managers leading by example and embracing change. Hence, this model is used to explain the inherent and possibly acquired qualities in progressive minded officials who focus on organizational growth.

What is LMX theory? How is it used in this study?
Leader-member exchange theory was used to operationalize the relationship quality construct. LMX theory as a multidimensional scale that gauges relationship quality based on 12 key items, such as loyalty, contribution, and professional respect. Hence, this framework formed the basis of the interview questions. Every measurable aspect was modeled behind the tenets and building blocks of LMX. Additionally, this theory focuses on the personal or professional link formed between leaders and their followers. To make their study more holistic, the authors evaluated the overall organization’s relationship with its staff and how the staff responded to individual leaders. Accordingly, their data and findings would provide conclusive results with regards to a progressive leader’s role in firm and individual employee performance.

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Works Cited
Carter, Min Z., et al. “Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change.” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2012.