Motivation and awareness are a matter of great interest to scientists. All research works aimed at explaining human actions are studies of motivation. The concept of motivation and perception is often used as one of the central concepts to explain human behavior. Psychologists have studied and pointed out that awareness has a vital role to play in social activity. The motivation is the force that motivates people to act to achieve their goals. In other words, motivation is a factor that makes people act to satisfy their needs .
The use of alcohol has been around for a long time, but it is becoming more and more prevalent. According to a WHO study, alcohol is the fifth cause of the list of the top 10 causes of death worldwide . Currently, college students use alcohol regularly and at the level of abuse. Students use alcohol because of some psychological motivations such as to minimize negative emotions, to integrate with friends, to match social requirements. There is no difference in the motives of using alcohol by students from the surveyed sectors. Based on the University of Utah student motivational research on alcohol use and cognitive behavioral theories, this report shows the key motivations that motivate the use and behavior of alcohol abuse among students. Since then, propose some recommendations to help students adjust the level and intensity of alcohol use to suit individual health and community requirements. The research object is the students of the University of Utah. The objective of the research is the motive of using alcohol for students.
This research only focuses on studying the motive of using Utah’s student alcohol on three sides as a student perception of alcohol and the harmful effects of alcohol abuse; attitudes and feelings of students on alcohol use; the level and intensity of alcohol use by students; and the difference in motivations for alcohol use among student groups.
Behavior theory and human motivation
The research direction of the motor activity of animals and especially of humans has existed for a long time in psychology. By different approaches and research methods, psychologists have sought to explain why humans perform a certain behavior, why he is active in performing the task. This is often indifferent while performing the other task. All research in this category is essentially a study of behavioral motivation and awareness.
Motivation is one of the critical issues in psychology that was interested in research very early. Ronald E. Smith said that the concept of motivation is used as a central concept to explain its behavior and causes. There are many different schools of research when studying motivation. The authors consider human motivation a central issue; however, among the authors, there are very different views when discussing the implications of motivation concept.
Since ancient times, when psychology has not become an independent science, but it is also a subject of philosophy, the cause of internal motivation of human activity has been researched. For example, Aristotle (384-322 BC) explained the motive for biology-based activities. He thinks that many human behaviors are motivated by “craving.” Action always aims to satisfy “craving” . That means that behavior is driven by internal states such as hunger, thirst, sexual desire. If action is successful, people will feel pleasure. However, Aristotle has also shown that humans are different from animals in that people are able to use their minds to inhibit craving. However, conclusions at that time lacked the scientific basis to prove the motivation.
Psychoanalysis, headed by S. Freud, explains the nature of human motivation towards biochemistry. This view holds that the instinct available since human birth is the driving force (motivation) of all human activities. Therefore, according to him, the nature of human motivation is unconscious . Human sexual instincts (libido) dominate all activities. That energy comes out in different forms of activity. If the need for that instinct is not satisfied, people will fall into a state of stress. Atler, a new psychoanalysis psychologist, says that the fundamental motivation of behavior determines the purpose and path of activity. The relationship between a strong desire and a weak feeling dictates the nature of motives when people act. In general, the Psychoanalytic theory sees human motivation as instincts.
According to cognitive behavior theory, J. Watson, the representative of behavioral psychology, took behavior as his research object. Behaviorists claim that the driving force of the reaction is external stimuli on the body’s need for stimulation (S-> R, S-O-S or S-r-s-R) . Both classical behavioralism and new behaviorism make the mistake of being humanized; Considered human psychology as animal psychology. The authors of this school have not explained the cause that motivates people to perform actions. They think that human needs are similar to the needs of animals, ignoring the social nature of people.
M. Wertheimer, V. Kohler, and K. Koffka are representatives of Gestalt psychology. These researchers mainly study their perceptions and rules. K. Lewin – one of the representatives of Gestalt psychology has paid more attention to the issue of personality and motivation. According to him, the force is the interaction of force inside the force field, and he denies the impact from the outside world. K. Lewin can only speak of signs that characterize the dynamics of dynamics, psychological factors that affect that process, increase the momentum, or vice versa . Lewin was not interested in human experience and underestimated the personality traits, needs, and aspirations that existed in a person. The downside of Lewin is that he only pays attention to the mobility of the engine and doesn’t care about its content. Besides, he denied the role of external influences in forming engines.
Humanistic psychology with representative C. Roger argued that the formation of human motives took place consciously on the sustainable basis of birth and genetics. Psychology Activities based on dialectical materialism have affirmed that human motivation is formed and developed right in the process of human activity and social interaction, but it consciously joins. The motive of human activity, therefore, has a social nature that does not separate from the movement and development of consciousness. In 1926, L.X. Vygotsky proposed to build “a science of human behavior.” He proposed studying human behavior in human relations with the surrounding reality. Although not mentioning the motivation to promote human behavior, Vogotxki has built a theoretical and methodological basis as a basis for a series of research works on later engines. In 1953, X.L. Rubinstein considered “the will of action necessarily involves motivation, so it is possible to distinguish the level of willpower depending on the nature of the main motives” . According to the author, motivation can stem from desires, needs, emotions, personalities, thoughts, and awareness of the tasks that social life poses. X.L. Rubinstein only stopped at the level of studying the main task of the engine category and showing the way to solve the task. By 1966 appeared the “mind” theory of D.N. Uzanadze, argued that motivation motivates human behavior to follow the mind theory. He said that “demand is the source of positive” of personality. When the subject points out to the external environment in order to satisfy the immediate need, every certain occurrence situation causes in the subject a certain mind, and through this mind guides the entire behavior. He does not approve of bringing the concept of “motivational struggle” into psychology. Because he thinks that every act has only one motive that gives meaning to that behavior, other psychologists criticized his view because the engine existed as a system of motives. When doing any activity, there is always a struggle between those engines. However, he outlined new insights into the notion of needs, types of needs, their relationship to forms of human behavior, the relationship between behavior and mind. P.M. Jacobson identifies people who perform actions for a common purpose or a specific purpose. He distinguishes motives in a narrow sense, which are motives of specific behavior, and in a broad sense, the behavior is a combination of psychological factors that determine human behavior in general . V.S.Merlin identifies the concept of motivation with demand. It denotes human relationships with things and phenomena. Each motivation has two aspects that stimulate emotional action and attitude.
In the history of research on motivational issues, Leonchiev is a profound and persuasive author. According to Leonchiev, the object meets this need, or other needs are in objective reality when they reveal and are perceived by the subject. That object has the function of promoting, guiding activities or becoming an engine. He described “that object appears as a mental phenomenon, motivation from within.” A.N. Leonchiev believes that the motivation is: a) Motivation and demand are two psychological phenomena inextricably linked; b) The driving force is the object capable of meeting the needs of the perceived subject, symbol, and thinking. That is a subjective reflection of the object satisfying the demand; c) Motivation with the motivational and operational orientation to satisfy needs . B.Ph. Lomov said that demand is closely related to motivation, and we cannot separate demand and motivation. Therefore, when studying motivation, it is necessary to study motivation about demand. According to B.Ph. Lomov, motivation is the subjective expression of demand, and vice versa; demand is the basis of motivation . “The change in these dynamics only occurs when there is a fundamental change in living conditions and personal life activities in society (and more: the change of society itself).” Unlike Western Psychology, Soviet psychologists do not consider motivation as an independent element. Motivation is not only an integral part of operations but also a component of a complex system that is linked to needs. Motivation is a reflection of demand. Those who meet this need or another need exist in objective reality, once they are exposed, being perceived by the subject will motivate and guide people to function. In other words, when the need to meet an object capable of satisfying, it becomes a powerful motivation . By studying some research works on the motives of the authors according to the viewpoint of the psychology of activities, the following conclusions can be reached:
– Motivation is the stimulating factor, motivating people to operate. The content of motivation is the relationship between the subject and the environment.
– Human activity has a motivational system following the hierarchical structure. The dominant motivation will regulate the trend of human behavior.
In short, in psychology there are many different views about motivation. However, the views agree that motivation is the stimulus, regulating the choice and orientation of behavior, which motivates people to act in order to satisfy needs.
The researches on the use of alcohol and beer in the world
Recent studies of many countries around the world, such as Sweden and the UK, show a tendency to rejuvenate drinkers, and an increase in the frequency and amount of alcohol consumed among young people. In 2004-2005, out of 100,000 high school students in the UK, 146 students were temporarily absent from school because of alcohol-related concerns, and 06 out of 100,000 students were expelled from school. And, alcoholic drinks are also identified as having a relationship with truancy. In London, at the age of 14-16, more than two-thirds of alcohol and beer abuses are those who often drop school . Excessive drinking and other problem behaviors among 14-16-year-old children. The age and location of alcohol use are linked to the use of alcohol by young people, according to a survey by North West UK. 90% of students (ages 15 and 16) surveyed reported that they sometimes drank alcohol, 38.0% often fell into an imbalanced state, 24.4% were regularly drinking (drink two or more times a week) and 49.8 % drink in public places (such as at clubs, streets, and parks) Children often drink alcohol in public places more than at home. Hayman shows that the proportion of students currently drinking alcohol before the survey time increases with age by 10% at age 12 and increases to 49% at the age of 17. Parents are a factor with universal impact. The most variable is the use of alcohol by students, with 37% of men and 38% of women showing that their parents have given them alcohol in the past week. Three places that young people often drink are at home, at home of friends or parties. The latest UK survey results show that there is no gender difference in the use of alcohol and beer by young people and the impact of friends as well as the pressure on themselves as one of the factors that make young people Find wine and beer. Women today have “caught up” with men about access and use of alcohol. In the UK, under 18 years of age are not allowed to buy alcohol for themselves, but 63% of people aged 16-17 and 10% of people aged 12-15 were drunk during the past year saying they often buy alcohol in pubs, bar and night club. Young people consider alcohol as a means of social interaction with friends (62%).
Drinking alcohol to increase confidence is also an important indicator. Advertising programs for alcoholic beverages in the mass media have a certain impact on the use of alcohol in adolescents. A recent study of the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescents in Ireland shows that the majority of teenagers surveyed claim that they love alcohol advertising programs. And, most teenagers believe that the content of advertising programs will contribute to their actions or goals because advertising programs describe the scene – dancing, entertainment at Nightclub, vibrant music. Teenagers treat advertisements for alcohol and beer as suggestions, alcohol, and beer advertising programs, which tend to embrace that alcohol will bring success in life and sex (Alcohol and advertising, 2010). According to the study of France, the problems caused by alcohol caused losses accounted for 1.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1997, higher than cigarettes (1.2%). Another US study reported a higher number of 2.1% of gross domestic product (GDP). Thus, through their studies, Western authors show that the age of first access to alcohol and beer is rejuvenating. Alcohol and beer use varies by age, and there is no gender difference in the use of liquor and beer. The place where young people use wine and beer is at home, at friends’ houses or parties. Along with family, the group of friends and advertising programs on alcohol and beer also have a certain impact on the behavior of using alcohol and beer of young people.
General arguments about motivation to use alcohol
The motivational term is based on the function of a metaphor of activity, because the term comes from the Latin word movere, referring to movement. In psychology, there are many different definitions of human motivation. However, the definitions are consistent in the view of motivation as a psychological phenomenon that regulates the choice and direction of behavior to explain the cause of such behavior. In essence, first of all, motivation is a psychological reflection of an object that can satisfy the subject’s needs. The needs mentioned here always have specific objects. At first, the subject has not realized the object of demand, and the subject appears a state that needs something. Only when the need to meet the object is able to satisfy it, is the object perceived, thinking, it achieves the ability to promote and direct the subject of activity, which is the engine of activity. Secondly, the characteristic motive of people is historical – social. This affirms, human motivation arises and forms during the development of the individual, not available from the moment of birth. Human motivation system is formed based on activities and communication of subjects in social relations, as well as in human relations with the objective world. On the other hand, the historical-social nature of motivation is also expressed in that the object satisfying human needs is the product of the social production process. Even for motivations of biological origin, it is meeting the body’s need for survival, because the response is also social, depending on specific living conditions, especially culture, lifestyle.
According to Macx Psychology, motivation is a psychological reflection of an object capable of satisfying the subject’s needs. The need is always aimed at a certain object. It urges people to act in response to satisfaction and only when they meet an object with the ability to satisfy it can it become an incentive to drive the direction of the subject, urging people to operate to satisfy demand. Thus, there is a relationship between motivation and demand. In psychology, these two phenomena are always studied in close relationships. It can be said that, if the needs are perceived as the demand of the subject on the necessary conditions for existence and development, the motivation is the individual expression of that objective necessity.
However, motivation and demand are not identical. The same needs can be satisfied by different motives. The complex relationship between motivation and demand is due to the diversity, multimodal nature of motivation, and how to satisfy the needs of human action. It can be said that the motive of activity can be seen as the object of that activity.
In terms of arising, for human activities, the mismatch between motivation and goals is a starting point. In contrast, the motor match and the target are the later phenomena. It may be the result of the goal having a motive for independence, or the result of a sense of motivation that makes them motivations and goals. Motivations are often not conscious of the subject right away. When people perform actions, they often are unaware of the dynamics that motivate their behavior. When asked about the reason for that action, people can answer easily. But finding this reason completely does not indicate to people that the real motives have motivated such actions. However, these motives are also not separate from consciousness, even when people are not aware of their motives.
The specific motivations of people are social-historical. Human motivation arises right in the very development of the individual, not from the time the child is born. In early childhood, new dynamics are formed hierarchically, but very faint and unclear. Gradually, in the process of development, these new motivations gradually become more social, due to these motivations associated with the child acquiring the norms and behavioral rules in society. Most psychologists acknowledge that human motivation system is formed based on human activities and communication in the system of specific social relations and social groups. But when the situation forces people to choose which motivation to suit the conduct of the action, the struggle process will help people compare and compare the motive to select what is the appropriate motivation. However, to clarify the mechanism of engine formation has not been studied by many researchers and researchers deeply. Even some biological motivations such as the motivation to meet the needs of human survival are also social, and it depends on the living conditions, lifestyles, and characteristics of each ethnic group. From the definition of fundamental motivation, the motivation to use alcohol is understood to be the impetus and orientation of human alcohol use behavior.
A questionnaire was developed to investigate students’ motivation for alcohol use at the University of Utah. From the exploration results and the rationale for the dynamics and nature of alcoholic beverages, the impact of alcohol abuse on human health, the survey includes sections such as awareness and attitude, and how to handle college students’ use of alcohol; factors affecting student alcohol use behavior.
The survey was conducted on 371 students. Because many research results have shown differences in the level, purpose, and need for alcohol use between men and women, the topic does not compare the difference in the motives of using alcohol by gender. This study also does not follow the direction of distinguishing the difference in alcohol use among students in the early years and final year students. The research will focus on investigating, analyzing, and comparing students’ alcohol use motivation.
The survey form is built on the principle of anonymous to ensure honesty and objectivity, including 2 necessary parts: the information of the object and the content. The information section of the audience includes gender, and junior year to compare the differences in perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors to the use of alcohol and beer among students of different groups.
According to research results, it can be seen that the most favorite student drinks are bottled beer or canned beer (accounting for 69.3%). This is perfectly reasonable when the beer market is growing strongly. 14.5% of students often drink alcohol. 16.2% of students said they could use both alcohol and beer. 100% of students surveyed said they used to be drunk. Specifically, 63.3% of students affirmed that their purpose of alcohol use is to create favorable conditions for communication relations. It can be said that the purpose of using this beer and beer by students is not significantly affected by the habits of society today. Business contracts, trading relationships almost all happen on the table, requiring people to know and use alcohol regularly. 33.1% of students said they use alcohol as a way to reduce stress and negative emotions in their lives. Alcohol-containing alcohol is a chemical that acts directly on the nervous system, inhibiting and slowing down the process of conveying information from the brain to the body, making the drink feel refreshing. Therefore, not only students but many people from all walks of life, all ages, sex, and work have come to alcohol as a way to avoid real problems. Another reason is that 23.8% of students claim to use alcohol as “entertainment in their free time.” This is a worrying use purpose, because the age and characteristics of students are youthful and dynamic, in addition to the work of studying and training in schools, they need to participate in social activities, as well as sports, cultural arts to improve life skills for themselves, not to hang out at the table. Many students “completely disagree” and “disagree” choose the purposes of alcohol use such as increased appetite and digestive stimulation (51.2%), creating a personal style for yourself (67.1%), satisfying the need to drink (59%), reducing insomnia symptoms (61%), stimulating imagination (68.2%).
Most Utah students are aware of the negative effects of alcohol abuse clearly. This is a good result. It demonstrates that students regularly update information related to the consequences of alcohol abuse. In particular, effects such as “causing insecurity in traffic,” “causes of conflict and domestic violence,” “wasting money and time” are considered by students to be effective. The most negative for human life. Nearly 100% of students (98.7% agree) believe that alcohol abuse causes “insecurity in traffic.” Alcohol is a stimulant that leads to mental disorders. At mild levels, alcohol reduces feelings, slows down reactions, and logical thinking declines. Alcoholics find it difficult to judge the situation. The average level makes the patient forgetful, and the perception is inaccurate. At a severe degree, alcohol causes a state of shock and makes people unable to control behavior. The high levels of disturbance affect the ability of alcohol users to control and master vehicles when participating in traffic. So, to ensure safety for yourself and those around you when taking part in controlling vehicles, you should not use alcohol. Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of traffic accidents. 88.7% of Utah college students “strongly agree” & “agree” that alcohol abuse is “an increase in criminal acts” and that 82% of students said, “alcohol is the cause of the pulse domestic violence and domestic violence.” Domestic violence by alcohol addicts is increasingly serious, and murder crimes are also caused by this cause. Many broken families, many husbands have to go to jail because of beer and wine. Besides, slaughtering and murder cases often occur.
The judgment “alcohol abuse is a waste of money and time” is supported by 84.9% of students. The Ministry of Health reports also show that in addition to losing safety when participating in traffic, causing severe harm to health and personal finance, alcohol abuse will cause significant economic damage to the commune. The association is due to the high annual cost of dealing with the consequences of alcohol abuse.
In addition, the majority of students agreed that alcohol abuse leads to unintended health consequences such as brain degeneration (75.8% agree), hurting body parts (83.0). % agree), is a cause of racial degeneration (71.7% agree) and causes a higher risk of cancer (70.3% agree). Alcohol and beer abuse is the cause of more than 60 types of illnesses, not the third of the causes of premature death and disability in the world. According to the World Health Organization estimates, alcohol abuse causes 4% of deaths and 4.65% of the total global burden of disease. Alcohol abuse is increasing, so alcohol exhibits many adverse effects: cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and primarily mental illnesses. Alcohol is very psychologically compelling, and it acts on the central nervous system with many mechanisms. Alcohol causes atrophy of brain tissue, inhibits the central nervous system, and destroys brain cells. Alcohol interferes with the communication between nerve cells by interacting with neurons’ receptors, promoting inhibition of neurotransmitters GABA and glutamine, causing the body to become sluggish. The brain can be reduced in size and lead to deficiencies in nerve fibers, which transport information between brain cells. Thus, alcohol dramatically affects the nerves and mental activities when alcohol abuse can cause many dangerous effects. Drinking too much alcohol harms our health. Alcohol destroys the liver, kidneys, and heart. The liver is the most sensitive organ of damage due to the effects of alcohol because this is where alcohol and other toxins are metabolized. Drinking alcohol for a long time can lead to hepatitis. Up to 70% of people with alcoholic hepatitis develop cirrhosis.
Although the legislation on alcohol and beer was issued early, it only focused on regulations to minimize the consequences of alcohol and beer abuse, but no preventive regulations. When someone abuses alcohol, beer leads to bad consequences in social relations such as when participating in traffic, when participating in civil transactions; Those who violate the criminal law by using alcohol, they will be dealt with according to regulations. Other contents such as propaganda and education; regulations on age restrictions; selling time; location of selling, printing health warnings on packaging, measures to reduce the need for alcohol, alcohol control measures aimed at preventing abuse and strictly controlling alcohol not properly concerned and lack of appropriate regulations. This shows that legal documents on harm prevention of alcohol and beer abuse do not guarantee the prevention of the harmful effects of abuse, including health-related issues. The current trend of preventive medicine is the foundation of modern health. Legal intervention to regulate risk factors caused by alcohol and beer is an urgent requirement.
In addition, the State will focus on managing the activities of alcohol and beer production and trading companies with licenses and business registration, but no strict management measures for homemade alcohol. Licensing management is only for wine business, but for beer, the control of this item has not been implemented. At the same time, the coordination mechanism among relevant ministries and branches in implementing the legal documents on production and business management as well as preventing the harmful effects of alcohol abuse has not been set and tight. There is no focal agency for prevention and control of harmful effects of alcohol and beer abuse.
Based on motivational arguments, studies of the harmful effects of alcohol and beer abuse and actual survey results, some conclusions have been drawn. There are many research works of domestic and foreign authors on the situation of alcohol use of young people. However, the research on the motives of using alcohol and beer of students has not been paid attention and researched satisfactorily. Students are the labor force with excellent scientific knowledge of society. They play an essential role in the development of the country. At this age, their motivation is under the control of their friendships, the habits, and requirements of contemporary society. The motivation to use alcohol and beer covers three factors: awareness, attitude, and external expression by specific behaviors. The motive of using alcohol of students is influenced by internal factors such as characteristics, psychological rules of youth ages, knowledge and life experiences that students have accumulated, and the weak external factors such as the impact of tradition, the impact of friends or social requirements. The motivation for the use of alcohol by Utah University students is mainly psychological motives such as wanting to be recognized by a group of friends, and integrating with the general trend of society. Meanwhile, alcohol is used as a catalyst in communications. In general, there are relatively similar motives for the use of alcohol by college students in different industry groups.
From the results of the project implementation, a number of recommendations were proposed to create a basis for implementing solutions to limit the use of alcohol by students. Firstly, the State and functional agencies need to strictly implement the law, resolutely punish people who use alcohol and beer when participating in traffic and strictly punish illegal alcohol traders. It is necessary to develop policies to effectively prevent and combat the harmful effects of alcohol and beer; policies to encourage people not to use alcohol and beer in festivals, culture, and traditions of the nation. Secondly, schools need to build a rich learning and living environment to attract students’ interest in cultivating career skills as well as life skills for themselves. Thirdly, every family needs to be aware of the harmful effects of alcohol use to limit the accumulation of alcohol in the family and change the habits of alcohol use. Parents need exemplary not to use alcohol when participating in traffic. Fourth, students themselves need to equip themselves with knowledge of alcohol and beer and how to minimize the harmful effects of alcohol. Students need to be determined to say no to alcohol when participating in traffic. Students need to actively propagate and encourage relatives and friends to not use and abuse alcohol.