Organizations, whose employees are unmotivated often, encounter some issues in regards to productivity. Thus, managers are encouraged to develop and implement a variety of motivational strategies to ensure that the employees are well motivated. Therefore, it is apparent that motivation is a crucial aspect of managing employees. The following document is a critical evaluation of the concept of motivation.
The concept of motivation is derived from the term “motive” which refers to needs, wants, desires and or drives within human beings. Thus, motivation can be described as the process of stimulating people to a variety of actions, which include accomplishment of organizational goals and objectives. In the context of an organization a wide range of factors that can be used to motivate employees include job security, job satisfaction, success, recognition, and remuneration among others. It is critical to note that the core responsibility of a manager is to ensure that employees perform at their best hence the need to motivate the employees (Albrecht, 2015). In this respect, the central role of the leader is to create interest in employee performance. To achieve motivation managers need to implement the motivation process, which comprises of three stages namely; drive stimulus and satisfaction. In the first phase, a drive must be created as the employees must feel a need; thus, the conclusion that motivation is a psychological phenomenon, which can only be achieved when the wants of individuals are managed through an incentive plan.
Compare and contrast motivation issues as influenced by cultural and legal environments of various countries
Indeed motivation and incentives to create motivation are perceived differently in various cultures. Culture refers to beliefs and the way of life of various communities in the world. Culture is influenced by a variety of factors including perception of life. If a culture values monetary benefits more than they value non-monetary benefits then it would be ineffective to implement non- monetary benefits as a motivation strategy. In such a society, it would be recommended that managers use monetary incentives to motivate the employees by offering financially based incentives including bonuses, Insurance covers, paid leaves and vouchers among others. Therefore, it is critical that an organization understands the culture of the society to develop and implement strategies that focus on what the society values.
Organizations need to consider the legal requirements in the environments in which they operate. For instance, in a country whereby the employer is required to pay bonuses to employees, the employer must pay bonuses not as a motivation strategy but rather as a legal requirement. The legal requirements of an organization are determined by a variety of factors including employee unions, employment regulation and commercial law effective in the country. Legal requirements may determine employee wages in that the organization needs to pay employees a minimum wage. Thus, the organization needs to first fulfill legal requirements, then develop and implement additional motivational strategies. It is critical to note that legal requirements may increase the cost of motivation in an organization. For instance, it is a legal requirement that an employer must provide employees with insurance, housing, medical and bonuses.
The Implications of Motivational Issues Studied on Managers, Employees, Organization, And Other Stakeholders.
Managers, Organizations, employees and organizational stakeholders encounter a variety of motivational issues that affect the organization in various ways. One major issue that organizations deal with is how to select the most effective motivational strategy. Indeed motivation is a crucial process in management as it provides a wide variety of benefits for the organization. Firstly, motivation plays a significant role in putting the human resource into action. No organization can function without the human resource as they are the ones tasked with completing a variety of business functions to accomplish goals and objectives set by the organization hence, the need to motivate the employees and utilize their skills to perform the tasks. Through motivation, employers build a willingness in the human resources pushing them to do their best. Secondly, motivation improves the efficiency of employees. It is critical to note that employment levels do not purely depend on one’s qualifications and skills (Anitha, 2014). Thus, the employer needs to bridge the gap between the ability to perform and willingness to perform which is crucial in improving performance levels of employees. Thus, resulting in increased productivity, reduction of operational costs and overall organizational efficiency.
Effective motivation also leads to the accomplishments of goals and objectives in various ways namely through the effective utilization of resources, co-operation, employees are goal oriented. Therefore, facilitating the achievement of goals through simultaneous co-ordination and co-operation. Also, employees are part and parcel of the organization hence the need to develop healthy relationships. Since motivation brings employee satisfaction the employees perceive themselves as part of the organization, therefore, they make an effort to ensure that they perform at their best as an organizational success is a personal success as well. To ensure that the bond between the employees and the employer is developed and maintained, the employer must craft an incentive plan that benefits the employees and caters to their needs and wants. The incentives must, therefore, include monetary and non-monetary incentives, disincentives for inefficient employees as well as employee growth and development opportunities.
Build relationships with employees is not a simple task as it requires many considerations; hence, there some strategic steps that the manager must take as they play a significant role in assisting in creating active co-operation which results in stability. Limits industrial disputes and employee strikes ensure that employees support change as they do not perceive difference as a threat but rather as an opportunity to achieve personal and organizational goals. Hence, aligning, individual and corporate objectives and culminating in profit maximization as a result of increased productivity.
Motivation also plays a role in creating stability in the human resource department. It is critical to note that a stable human resource influences the goodwill and reputation of an organization. Loyal employees will focus their efforts on ensuring the success of the organization. The efficiency and skills of an organization is a significant asset for an organization as they create a positive public image which is replicated in the market and attract the target market as well as investors.
An incentive can merely be defined as a stimulus to more significant action, for instance, an employer can pay employees a bonus at the end of financial years as an incentive for them to work harder in the next fiscal year. Thus, the employees will be motivated to work hard to receive a hefty bonus in the next financial year. Important to note is that incentives are not part of the salary or wage, but instead there are in addition to the payments due to the employees. Therefore, the additional benefit is a form of recognition that employees have indeed contributed to the success of the organization. The motive behind an incentive is to create zeal and spur in the employee performance. It is also important to note that naturally, persons require a motivation to perform a task and people do not merely perform tasks without a purpose. Hence, the incentive is aimed at creating a target for employees to be zealous in their work. Incentives are in various forms and do not necessarily have to be in kind of money. Incentives can include job promotion, the pride of accomplishment, job satisfaction, employee development, and job security among other benefits. Similarly, incentives can be applied to accomplish numerous tasks including; increasing productivity, create employee drive, enhance employee commitment, satisfy employees psychologically and financially shape perspectives of the job among others.
Incentives are broadly divided into two broad groups’ namely monetary incentives and non – financial incentives. Monetary incentives include using the money to create motivation. Money is perceived as the primary source of satisfying human needs. Also, money can meet social needs as one can acquire various material items that can elevate them to higher social standing. For instance, money can ensure that an employee can pay rent in a more prestigious community hence raising their status in the city. Thus, monetary incentives are a common choice for organizations where they choose to pay out bonuses, increase salaries and wages (Macey, 2008).
Conversely, non- monetary incentives include all other incentives aside from money. The excuses must satisfy the ego of the employees. Since the impulses cannot be measured in the form of payment, they are considered as non- monetary incentives. Non-monetary are commonly applied when an employer or manager aims at using incentives to satisfy the psychological needs of the employees. In this respect the non- monetary incentives are divided into various categories namely;
- Job security: Employees who are secure about their jobs are highly motivated as they are not always worrying about what will happen to them shortly. Fear of losing employment acts as a significant distraction for employees as they cannot concentrate (Breevaar, 2014). Also without job security, they do not see the need to invest in the organization, as it is not going to be part of their lives anymore. Therefore, when employees are convinced that their role in the organization is not “up for grabs” then they will be motivated to invest their skills and abilities to the success of the organization.
- Recognition: Employees require and indeed seek for recognition as it satisfies their egos, hence, the need to recognize employees who have shown great dedication and progress (Byrne, 2014). Recognizing employees motivates them to continue in the hard work as well as motivates poor performing employees to work harder so that they too may receive praise and have their egos satisfied.
- Suggestion plans: When an employer asks an employee for their opinion, employees feel humbled and appreciated. They feel as they are part of the organization as their opinion matters to the leaders. Including employees in various management decisions motivates them as they no longer perceive themselves as tools or a means to an end but rather as part of the organization’s community.
- Promotion: As previously discussed in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, human beings have the desire to accomplish more and indeed be more in life. Thus, when employees are aware that there is a possibility that they could be elevated to the next level in the organization, then they are motivated to work harder.
- Training and development: Summarily to promotion employees have the desire to grow in the form of skills and job title. Through training and development programs employee skills are developed making them suitable for higher paying jobs, and additional responsibilities are hence increasing their value to the organization. Development opportunities motivate the employees to work harder and to prove themselves as it would be a stepping stone to the next level.
- Job enrichment: Involves increasing responsibility of employees and providing them an opportunity to prove their worth to the organization.
Compare and contrast how issues relevant to your selected topic are practiced in North America, Europe, locally in the UAE, and other related region/countries.
As previously discussed cultures do indeed influence how employees perceive motivation thus dictating the type of incentive that can be used by an organization. According to a research carried out on companies in the Middle East, it was noted that over 65 percent of professionals in the UAE are indeed motivated. The research was carried out with an aim of understanding the economic climate in the region impacts employee satisfaction levels in the Middle East as well as identify driving factors that motivate employees in the region. Over 53 percent of the respondents in the UAE stated that were satisfied due as a result of appreciation and recognition by employers. On the other hand only 31 percent of the respondents were dissatisfied at their employment, the figure was among the highest in the region thus indicating sharp contrast and indeed a gap between satisfied and unsatisfied employees.
The survey revealed that employees were satisfied as a result of a good work life balance. Thus the conclusion that in the middle east employees seek recognition, appreciation and a good work life balance as a form of motivation. Furthermore employees who were motivated also received support from their organizations so as to achieve good work life balance. The support the employees received varied including employee training, mentorship programs and day care centers among others.
In North America, organizations use bonuses as a motivational strategy. In the last decade, North American companies have been encountering numerous challenges in reference to motivation as bonuses are no longer effective. Employers’ are no longer satisfied with bonuses thus companies are seeking to implement new motivational strategies to keep their employees motivated. Thus companies are attempting new strategies including employee development programs, paid leaves, additional employee benefits and job rotation among others.
Similarly, in European companies are facing a challenge in keeping employees motivated through bonuses thus the need to invest in innovative motivational strategies. In Europe, employees seek job satisfaction as well as work and life balance hence the need for companies to develop motivational strategies that cater to the needs of the employees. In the last couple of years European companies have developed strategies that have revised employee working hours, work locations including “work at home” all with an aim of keeping employees motivated.
In conclusion, it is apparent that motivation is indeed a crucial tool in the management of human resources. Therefore, asserting the need for organizations to develop and implement a wide variety of motivational strategies aimed at encouraging employees as well as recognizing them for their efforts. An organization that fails to motivate its employees is at a danger of losing its position and value in the marketplace. Hence, to ensure success, managers must understand and implement effective motivation strategies.
Albrecht, S. L., Bakker, A. B., Gruman, J. A., Macey, W. H., & Saks, A. M. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), 7-35.
Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management, 63(3), 308.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O. K., & Espevik, R. (2014). Daily transactional and transformational leadership and regular employee engagement. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 87(1), 138-157.
Byrne, Z. S. (2014). Understanding employee engagement: Theory, research, and practice. Routledge.
Macey, H. William & Schneifer, B. (2008). The Meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3-30.
Mone, E. M., & London, M. (2018). Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers. Routledge.