Murphy, Sean, and Anthony Alata. 3D Bioprinting Of Tissues And Organs. 2015, https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.2958. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
According to the article “3D bioprinting of tissues and organs” by Sean V. Murphy and Anthony Atala, the modern technology of 3d printing also known as three-dimensional printing allows to manufacture almost every possible thing. Nowadays, this innovative technology leads the opportunities of the modern health care services to a completely new, better level. Forcing the development of engineering, education, manufacturing facilities, and many other industries, 3d printing made it possible to print biocompatible materials. As a matter of fact, these may be cells of the human organism and a great variety of the supportive components. Nowadays, with a help of 3D printing, it has become possible to develop and print even functional living tissues, giving a hope for those, who are in a great demand for a chance to live. In this way, the scientists can meet the demand of the medicine for tissues and organs that match the human organism perfectly and are suitable for transplantation. What is more, 3D bioprinting allows to choose the material of the tissues and organs, their cell types, regulate various growth and differentiation elements and avoid technical challenges.
Yoo, Seung-Schik. “3D-Printed Biological Organs: Medical Potential And Patenting Opportunity”. Tandfonline.Com, 2015, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1517/13543776.2015.1019466. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
The article “3D-Printed Biological Organs: Medical Potential and Patenting Opportunity” by Seung-Schik Yoo discusses three-dimensional bioprinting as a completely new, innovative technology that may help to solve one of the most challenging issue of transplantation and meet the increasing demand for tissues and organs. As a matter of fact, the technology of bioprinting provides a significant number of unique technical features that enable a modern human to create functional biological tissues by dispensing previously selected cells into special biological environment. There, the scientists usually place some bio-scaffold material and even extracellular matrices, meeting the demand for individualized biological construction. Thus, using medical and special technological applications, it is possible to create printed biological organs, in this way, complicating the nature of the human’s body. For sure, there is a great need to define a range of legal and ethical requirements for manufacturing and implantation such organs; nonetheless, the production of bioprinted organs will allow to
create a legal organ market and help millions of people to survive. What is more, 3D printing provides new opportunities for researchers in patenting and licensing their significant achievements and possible opportunities from various economic and medical Sectors.
Radencovic, Dina et al. Personalized Development Of Human Organs Using 3D Printing Technology. 2016, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987715004715. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
The article “Personalized development of human organs using 3D printing technology” by Dina Radenkovic, Atefeh Solouk, and Alexander Seifalian explains what the 3D printing is and what are the main principles of this innovative technology. Thus, the authors explain that “3D printing is a technique of fabricating physical models from a 3D volumetric digital image” (Radencovic et al.). According to the algorithm of 3D printing, the chosen image is gradually sliced and printed with 3D printer. Thus, the specialists use specific materials schemed to create numerous thin layers that form an organ or a tissue. It is important to mention that 3D printing has already been used before in order to print surgical models. These models were used to practice preoperative plans or to construct an individual prostheses for a patients, perfectly fitting his or her body. In this way, the primary goal of the scientists is to create functional human organs and different types of tissues. In addition, there is the aim to provide a solution for the organ transplantation problem that has been provoked by the significant lack of human organs and long-lasting immunosuppression.
Huh, Dongeun et al. From 3D Cell Culture To Organs-On-Chips. 2011, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0962892411001954. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
According to the article “From 3D cell culture to organs-on-chips” written by Dongeun Huh, Geraldine A. Hamilton, Donald E. Ingber, the cells produced with a help of 3D modelling and 3D printing have recently attracted a considerable attention of the global society. They tend to produce different levels of cells, organs, and tissues that may be
used for transplantation for the human’s body. In this way, it has become possible in 3D culture to develop and produce a great variety of microfabrication technologies.
Following the approaches of the microchip industry and implementing the basic rules of microfluidics approaches into the new sphere of medicine, the scientists managed to create a cell-culture microenvironment that is capable of supporting tissue differentiation
and recapitulating the tissue–tissue interface (Huh et al.). Besides, it has become possible to develop and produce spatiotemporal chemical gradients and project mechanical microenvironments of different living organs (Huh et al.). As a result, these 3D organs produced according to the algorithms of chip systems allow to examine human physiology in a unique context of organ specification and start a new page in a history of
medicine and technology.
Schubert, Carl et al. Innovations In 3D Printing: A 3D Overview From Optics To Organs. 2013, https://bjo.bmj.com/content/98/2/159. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
In the article “Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs” written by Carl Schubert, Mark van Langeveld, Larry Donoso, the innovative method of 3D printing is described as unique approach to manufacture different materials. According to the authors, 3D printing is a method that allows to create things from plastic or metal, modelling a desired thing layer by layer. In this way, the three-dimensional objects are
created, would it be a pair of glasses, a human organ, or a tissue. For many years, 3D printing has been used in engineering for developing and producing a great variety of engineering prototypes. Nowadays, this unique technology allows people to make different objects, traditional manufactured items, and other goods related to medicine and ophthalmology. In addition, this technology is successfully used to manufacture “eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices, and dental implants” (Schubert et al.).
Mironov, Vladimir et al. Rgan Printing: Computer-Aided Jet-Based 3D Tissue Engineering. 2003, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167779903000337. Accessed 9 Sept 2018.
According to the article “Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering” by Vladimir Mironov, Thomas Boland, Thomas Trusk, Gabor Forgacs, and Roger R. Markwald, 3D tissue engineering is expected to provide a solution to organ transplantation crisis. At the same time, the applying of 3D technologies into a production of organs provides a significant challenge. According to the authors, organ
printing that can also be defined as “computer-aided, jet-based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs” offers a great solution to the problem of donors (Mironov et al.). As a matter of fact, printing of organs includes three stages: “pre-processing or development of ‘blueprints’ for organs; processing or actual organ printing; and postprocessing or organ conditioning and accelerated organ maturation” (Mironov et al.). Thus, layer by layer, a thermo-reversible gel converts into so-called “printing paper.” As a result, a combination of biology concept and engineering approach allowed to develop 3D organ printing technology, starting a new era in the history of medicine.