Male infertility is a health disorder where a man fails to impregnate a clinically proven fertile female partner. Causes of male infertility are varied from related medical conditions to genetic factors. In the recent past, biologists have put more emphasis on genetic causes. Therefore, it is important to explore male infertility at the molecular level.
Germ cells produce Reactive Oxygen Species, which is vital for capacitation, maturation, oocyte fusion, and acrosome reaction when normal physiological conditions are present. Disturbing the process may result in DNA damage. Damaged spermatozoa DNA will hurt the male’s abilities to reproduce sperm. The Y chromosome is the gene associated with fertility. Deletion of this chromosome in whole or in part has been blamed for male infertility. Micro-deletions is common in the chromosome, which explains in part why infertility is high with victims of Klinefelter syndrome as well as those with 47XXY.
Besides deletions, structured abnormalities of the Y chromosome contribute to the phenotypic type of male disorder. The Yq bears over 15 families of genes, which control spermatogenesis. More specifically, the genes that are in the azoospermia region have a significant role in spermatogenesis. The region has four sections, namely AZFa, AZFb, AZFc, and AZFd. Deletions on AZFa and AZFb sections are proximal and are identifiable with Sertoli cell syndrome disorder. Deletions on AZFb and AZFc are associated with residual spermatozoa, while deletion beyond and including AZFc regions cause a total absence of sperm cells. These are some of the ways genetic factors may cause male infertility. Besides chromosomal disorders, male genetic infertility may manifest itself in forms of monogenic and endocrine disorders.
Infertility among the males is a multifactorial health disorder where one fails to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Genetic disorders have often been linked with this condition. For instance, chromosomal disorders may be detrimental to male fertility.