Psychology Essays Samples

[...] The origins of violent and aggressive behavior have been studied for many years by a great number of researchers from many disciplines. It is generally accepted that there is no single cause and that it results from a complex interaction of physiological, psychological, and environmental variables. Such variables include brain injury, metabolic disorders, alterations in central nervous system serotonin, availability of weapons, exposure to violence in the media, and whether or not violence is acceptable in a particular society. According to Bandura, there are three essential components of aggression: origins, the factors related to acquisition or development; instigators, events that activate or provoke aggression; and reinforces, rewards for aggressive behaviors. Bandura has suggested that most aggressive behaviors are acquired through observational learning (modeling or imitation), important sources of which are the family, the subculture, and media events (Guetzloe, 1999, p. 37). The instigators of aggression include observation of aggressive acts, aversive treatment, expectations of positive outcomes of aggression, instruction (e.g., a situation in which authorities command their followers to commit aggressive acts), as well as delusions or hallucinations. [...]

[...] Direct observation of behavior is one of the cornerstone tools for the assessment of behavioral, social, and emotional problems exhibited by children. Whether the observation involves formal behavioral recording in naturalistic settings, or whether it is done informally as part of other measurement strategies, behavioral observation provides the clinician with one of the most direct and objective assessment tools available. Direct behavioral observation is a procedure in which observers develop operational definitions of the targeted behaviors of interest, observe the subjects, and systematically record their behaviors. Behavioral observation is one of the strongest methods of assessment, and has the advantage of being easily linked to the development of interventions. [...]

[...] Sexuality appears to be one of the fundamental basics of the human nature. The division of people according to their sex has split the society and formed complicated relationships among people. These relationships are not solely based on sexual orientation or belonging, but sexuality plays vital role in forming the patterns of interaction among people of the same and different sex. From the very early stages of human development the perception of one's sexual affiliation plays an important role in forming a person's view on oneself as well as forming the perception of other people and attitudes towards them. Since sexuality is just as natural as any other bodily functions, it is influenced by the process of aging as is the rest of the human organism. [...]

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